"Phrik" in Thai
Chili is an erect,
branched, shrub-like herb with fruits used
as garnishing and flavouring in Thai dishes.
There are many different species. All contain
capsaicin, a biologically active ingredient
beneficial to the respiratory system, blood
pressure and heart. Other therapeutic uses
include being a stomachic, carminative and
antiflatulence agent, and digestant.
"Yi-ra" in Thai
Cumin is a small
shrubbery herb, the fruit of which contains
a 2-4% volatile oil with a pungent odour,
and which is used as a flavouring and condiment.
Cumin's therapeutic properties manifest
as a stomachic, bitter tonic, carminative,
stimulant and astringent.
"Kra-thiam" in Thai
Garlic is an annual
herbaceous plant with underground bulbs
comprising several cloves. Dried mature
bulbs are used as a flavouring and condiment
in Thai cuisine. The bulbs contain a 0.1-0.36%
garlic oil and organic sulfur compounds.
Therapeutic uses are as an antimicrobial,
diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant, antiflatulence
and cholesterol lowering agents.
"Khing" in Thai
Ginger is an erect
plant with thickened, fleshy and aromatic
rhizomes. Used in different forms as a food,
flavouring and spice. Ginger's rhizomes
contain a 1-2% volatile oil. Ginger's therapeutic
uses are as a carminative, antinauseant
and antiflatulence agent.
"Kha" in Thai
is an erect annual plant with aromatic,
ginger-like rhizomes, and commonly used
in Thai cooking as a flavouring. The approximately
0.04 volatile oil content has therapeutic
uses as carminative, stomachic, antirheumatic
and antimicrobial agents.
Basil: "Maeng-lak" in Thai
Hoary Basil is
an annual herbaceous plant with slightly
hairy and pale green leaves, eaten either
raw or used as a flavouring, and containing
approximately 0.7% volatile oil. Therapeutic
benefits include the alleviation of cough
symptoms, and as diaphoretic and carminative
"Ma-krut" in Thai
The leaves, peel
and juice of the Kaffir Lime are used as
a flavouring in Thai cuisine. The leaves
and peel contain a volatile oil. The major
therapeutic benefit of the juice is as an
Common English Name): Krachai in Thai
This erect annual
plant with aromatic rhizomes and yellow-brown
roots, is used as a flavouring. The rhizomes
contain approximately 0.8% volatile oil.
The plant has stomachache relieving and
antimicrobial properties, and therapeutic
benefits as an antitussive and antiflatulence
Grass: "Ta-khrai" in Thai
This erect annual
plant resembles a coarse grey-green grass.
Fresh leaves and grass are used as flavouring.
Lemongrass contains a 0.2-0.4 volatile oil.
Therapeutic properties are as a diurectic,
emmanagogue, antiflatulence, antiflu and
"Ma-nao" in Thai
Lime is used principally
as a garnish for fish and meat dishes. The
fruit contains Hesperidin and Naringin ,
scientifically proven antiinflammatory flavonoids.
Lime juice is used as an appetiser, and
has antitussive, antiflu, stomachic and
Marsh Mint: "Sa-ra-nae" in Thai
The fresh leaves
of this herbaceous plant are used as a flavouring
and are also eaten raw in Thai cuisine.
Volatile oil contents give the plant several
therapeutic uses, including carminative,
mild antiseptic, local anaesthetic, diaphoretic
and digestant properties.
"Phrik-Thai" in Thai
Pepper is a branching,
perennial, climbing plant from whose fruiting
spikes both white and black pepper are obtained.
Used as a spice and condiment, pepper contains
a 2-4% volatile oil. Therapeutic uses are
as carminative, antipyretic, diaphoretic
and diuretic agents.
Basil: "Ka-phrao" in Thai
Sacred Basil is
an annual herbaceous plant that resembles
Sweet Basil but has narrower and often times
reddish-purple leaves. The fresh leaves,
which are used as a flavouring, contain
approximately 0.5% volatile oil, which exhibits
antimicrobial activity, specifically as
carminative, diaphoretic, expectorant and
"Hom, Hom-lek, Hom-daeng" in Thai
Shallots, or small
red onions, are annual herbaceous plants.
Underground bulbs comprise garlic-like cloves.
Shallot bulbs contain a volatile oil, and
are used as flavouring or seasoning agents.
Therapeutic properties include the alleviation
of stomach discomfort, and as an antihelmintic,
antidiarrhoeal, expectorant, antitussive,
diuretic and antiflu agents.
Basil: "Ho-ra-pha" in Thai
Sweet Basil is
an annual herbaceous plant, the fresh leaves
of which are either eaten raw or used as
a flavouring in Thai cooking. Volatile oil
content varies according to different varieties.
Therapeutic properties are as carminative,
diaphoretic, expectorant, digestant and
"Kha-min" in Thai
Turmeric is a
member of the ginger family, and provides
yellow colouring for Thai food. The rhizomes
contain a 3-4% volatile oil with unique
aromatic characteristics. Turmeric's therapeutic
properties manifest as a carminative, antiflatulence